Canadian legal system is based on presumption of innocence. It comes from a number of documents including:
- the Constitution of Canada, which guarantees peace, order and good government.
- the magna carta which guarantees basic freedoms, such as freedom of religion and thoughtsref
- the French civil code
- the English criminal law
- the charter of rights and freedoms which protects mobility rights, official languages and multiculturalism
- the unwritten constitution of the UK
- legislatures, at a federal level (federal laws), provincial level (provincial laws), and local level (bylaws).
Federal law is enforced by the RCMP throughout Canada, which is also policing in the provinces, except in Quebec and Ontario (which have their own provincial police).
At a federal level, there is also a trial and an appeal court, as well as a supreme court with 9 justices, appointed by the Governor General on advice of the Prime Minister. Their decisions have legal power: they become the official interpretation of the law.
Provinces and territories have a system of courts, including a trial court (sometimes called court of Queen's bench) and an appeal court. They also usually have family courts, small claims court, and traffic courts.
- The Canadian government is the legislative branch of the government.
: The RCMP, formerly the North-West Mounted Police provides federal law enforcement across Canada, and policing in all provinces except Ontario and Quebecref andref. Its headquarters and training camp are in Sasketchewan.
: Canadian chart of rights and freedoms protects mobility rights, official languages, minority languages education rights, multiculturalism and aboriginal peoples' rightsref. Concretely: enter and leave Canada, vote, apply for a passport, be educated in either official language, right to live and work anywhere in Canada
The four principles are: rule of law, freedom under the law, democratic principles, and due process (the government must respect your rights)
Habeas Corpus allows you to denounce arbitrary imprisonmentref.
Constitution guarantees peace, good government and orderref.
There are also family courts, small claims courts, and traffic courts