#canada #institutions #government


Canada is a federal state, a parliamentary democracy, and a constitutional monarchy

It is a federal state because it is made of three layers of government with different responsibilities: the federal government handles nationwide issues like foreign policies and currency. The provincial / territorial governments handle provincial issues such as health and education. The local / municipal government handles local issues such as snow removal and recycling.

It is a constitutional monarchy because it operates under a constitution which is enforced by the Sovereign. The Sovereign is bound to the constitution (which Canada can alter without their approval since 1982), and the Canadian officials, such as the Prime Minister, take their power (such as making laws, replace the government, and appointing senators) from the Sovereign (technically, her representative: the Governor General) who needs to approve everything, traditionally a symbolic power.

It is a parliamentary democracy, because the executive and legislative power are assumed by official elected by Canadian citizens. The Sovereign does not have the power to create new laws, or to decide on policy ; the elected officials do. The cabinet ministers and the House of Commons initiate new bills, debate and refine, then vote on them. The Senate debate and refine and vote on them. Then the Sovereign approves them (give royal ascent).

The government is composed of:




Federal state, parliamentary democracy, constitutional monarchy

Three parts to government: sovereign, senate (senators, appointed by Governor on reco by PM) and House of Commons (MPs, elected in federal election).

Process to create a new law: Bill → House of commons → Senate → Governor → Law

During the report phase MP can make other amendments to the bill

Elections happen on 3rd Monday of Oct. 4y after the most recent election. 338 districts (discover Canada says 308)

Fathers of confederation created 2 levels (fed /prov) Federal responsibility - foreign policy, defense

Provincial responsibility - healthcare, education, policing, natural resources

Municipal responsibility - local health, snow removal, transportation. Mayors are sometimes called "reeve". Councils make local laws.

The Crown represents: Government, including Parliament, the legislatures, the courts, police services and the Canadian Forces