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Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship

By Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Latest version downloadable from Canada's CIC website

Location: 85

Magna Carta in 1215 in England (also known as the Great Charter of Freedoms), including: Freedom of conscience and religion; Freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of speech and of the press; Freedom of peaceful assembly; and Freedom of association.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 136

Peace, Order and Good Government, a key phrase in Canada’s original constitutional document in 1867, the British North America Act.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 151

From the 1800s until the 1980s, the federal government placed many Aboriginal children in residential schools

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 157

Indian refers to all Aboriginal people who are not Inuit or Métis.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 158

half of First Nations people live on reserve land in about 600 communities while the other half live off-reserve, mainly in urban centres.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 161

The Métis are a distinct people of mixed Aboriginal and European ancestry, the majority of whom live in the Prairie provinces.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 164

65% of the Aboriginal people are First Nations, while 30% are Métis and 4% Inuit.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 180

18 million Anglophones—people who speak English as a first language—and seven million Francophones—people

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 182

New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 183

Acadians are the descendants of French colonists

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 220

Chinese languages are the second most-spoken at home, after English, in two of Canada’s biggest cities. In Vancouver, 13% of the population speak Chinese languages at home; in Toronto, the number is 7%.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 240

The Huron-Wendat of the Great Lakes region, like the Iroquois, were farmers and hunters. The Cree and Dene of the Northwest were hunter-gatherers.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 242

Warfare was common among Aboriginal groups as they competed for land, resources and prestige.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 255

European exploration began in earnest in 1497 with the expedition of John Cabot,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 257

Between 1534 and 1542, Jacques Cartier made three voyages across the Atlantic,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 258

Cartier heard two captured guides speak the Iroquoian word kanata, meaning “village.” By the 1550s, the name of Canada began appearing on

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 267

Champlain allied the colony with the Algonquin, Montagnais and Huron, historic enemies of the Iroquois,

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Location: 277

In 1759, the British defeated the French in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Québec

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 305

The first representative assembly was elected in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1758.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 306

The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the Province of Quebec into Upper Canada (later Ontario), which was mainly Loyalist, Protestant and English-speaking, and Lower Canada

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 308

The Act also granted to the Canadas, for the first time, legislative assemblies elected by the people.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 316

In 1793, Upper Canada, led by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, a Loyalist military officer, became the first province in the Empire to move toward abolition.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 318

in 1833 abolished slavery throughout the Empire.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 332

Montreal Stock Exchange opened in 1832. For centuries

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 337

the United States launched an invasion in June 1812.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 342

in 1814, Major-General Robert Ross led an expedition from Nova Scotia that burned down the White House

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 363

reformers in Upper and Lower Canada believed that progress toward full democracy was too slow. Some believed Canada should adopt American republican values or even try to join the United States. When armed rebellions occurred in 1837–38 in the area outside Montreal and in Toronto,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 365

They were defeated

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 368

given responsible government. This meant that the ministers of the Crown must have the support of a majority of the elected representatives in order to govern.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 378

responsible government. This is the system that we have today: if the government loses a confidence vote in the assembly it must resign.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 384

The old Province of Canada was split into two new provinces: Ontario and Quebec, which, together with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, formed the new country called the Dominion of Canada.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 386

British North America Act in 1867. The Dominion of Canada was officially born on July 1, 1867.

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Location: 411

Canada’s First Prime Minister In 1867, Sir John Alexander Macdonald, a Father of Confederation, became Canada’s first Prime Minister.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 423

Louis Riel led an armed uprising and seized Fort Garry, the territorial capital.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 426

second rebellion in 1885 in present-day Saskatchewan

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 427

Riel is seen by many as a hero, a defender of Métis rights and the father of Manitoba.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 429

North West Mounted Police (NWMP) in 1873

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 439

British Columbia joined Canada in 1871 after Ottawa promised to build a railway to the West Coast.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 443

the CPR’s “ribbons of steel” fulfilled a national dream.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 450

economic boom of the 1890s and early 1900s.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 456

Over 7,000 volunteered to fight in the South African War (1899–1902), popularly known as the Boer War, and over 260 died.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 459

in 1914 and Britain declared war, Ottawa formed the Canadian Expeditionary Force (later the Canadian Corps). More than 600,000 Canadians served in the war, most of them volunteers, out of a total population of eight million.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 462

Vimy Ridge in April 1917, with 10,000 killed or wounded,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 465

from 1914 to 1920, Ottawa interned over 8,000 former Austro-Hungarian subjects, mainly Ukrainian men, as “enemy aliens” in 24 labour camps across Canada,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 467

General Sir Arthur Currie, Canada’s greatest soldier,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 469

In total 60,000 Canadians were killed and 170,000 wounded.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 481

the women’s suffrage movement. Its founder in Canada was Dr. Emily Stowe, the first Canadian woman to practise medicine in Canada. In 1916, Manitoba became the first province to grant voting rights to women.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 485

In 1918, most Canadian female citizens aged 21 and over were granted the right to vote in federal elections. In 1921 Agnes Macphail, a farmer and teacher, became the first woman MP. Due to the work of Thérèse Casgrain and others, Quebec granted women the vote in 1940.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 488

3,000 nurses, nicknamed “Bluebirds,” served in the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, 2,500 of them overseas

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 496

“Roaring Twenties”

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 497

“Dirty Thirties.” Unemployment reached 27% in 1933

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 501

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

bank of CAD

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1934.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 510

110,000 who have given their lives.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 533

Canadians captured Juno Beach

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 538

one million Canadians and Newfoundlanders (Newfoundland was a separate British entity) served in the Second World War,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 539

of these, 44,000 were killed.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 557

The discovery of oil in Alberta in 1947 began Canada’s modern energy industry.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 563

“employment insurance”) was introduced by the federal government in 1940.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 826

councillors or aldermen.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 957

Canadian flag was raised for the first time in 1965.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 960

The Canadian Red Ensign served as the Canadian flag for about 100 years.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 962

Maple leaves were adopted as a symbol by French Canadians in the 1700s,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 963

appeared on Canadian uniforms and insignia since the 1850s,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 969

after the First World War, Canada adopted an official coat of arms and a national motto, A Mari Usque Ad Mare, which in Latin means “from sea to sea.”

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 974

The buildings were completed in the 1860s. The Centre Block was destroyed by an accidental fire in 1916 and rebuilt in 1922. The Library is the only part of the original building remaining. The Peace Tower was completed in 1927 in memory of the First World War. The Memorial Chamber within the Tower contains the Books of Remembrance

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 982

Ice hockey was developed in Canada in the 1800s.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 986

Canadian football is the second most popular sport. Curling, an ice game introduced by Scottish pioneers, is popular.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 988

Soccer has the most registered players of any game in Canada.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1013

Canada O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command With glowing hearts we see thee rise The true North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada We stand on guard for thee God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee O Canada, we stand on guard for thee

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1039

Canada started its own honours system with the Order of Canada in 1967, the centennial of Confederation.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1231

New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province, and about one-third of the population lives and works in French. The province’s pioneer Loyalist and French

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1257

the largest Aboriginal population of any province, at over 15%.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1259

Saskatchewan, once known as the “breadbasket of the world” and the “wheat province,” has 40% of the arable land in Canada and is the country’s largest producer of grains and oilseeds.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1261

Regina, the capital, is home to the training academy of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1275

British Columbia (B.C.), on the Pacific coast, is Canada’s westernmost province, with a population of four million. The Port of Vancouver is our gateway

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1276

About one-half of all the goods produced in B.C. are forestry products,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1278

B.C. has the most extensive park system in Canada, with approximately 600 provincial parks.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1279

Chinese and Punjabi the most spoken languages in the cities after English.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1281

Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon contain one-third of Canada’s land mass but have a population of only 100,000.

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1289

Gold Rush of the 1890s,

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada

Location: 1291

Yukon holds the record for the coldest temperature ever recorded in Canada (-63°C).

~ Discover Canada – The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration Canada